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I. GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE MVNA-8-350 VECTOR NETWORK ANALYZER

MVNA-8-350 is a vector network analyzer (VNA), an instrument which measures the complex, or vector, impedance (a real and an imaginary part of the impedance or an amplitude and a phase of the microwaves) in the millimeter and sub-millimeter frequency domain. It covers the frequency range from 8 GHz up to 1 THz.

I.1. An original system.

Vector Network Analyzer includes a tunable microwave source and a detector, frequency stabilization unit, data acquisition and data processing system. In order to obtain the complete response function of Device Under Test (DUT) inserted into the microwave signal path, between the source and the detector, the detection system must provide both, the amplitude and the phase of the transmitted or reflected signal. Such vector measurements have been done alredy for many years, using an interferometer arrangement. The microwave signal is there split into two paths. The first, signal path includes the DUT, and the second, reference path, provides the wave which interferes with the signal from the DUT in the detector. Such dual path configuration, although widely used in the optical range of the spectrum, is often not practical in microwaves, in particular due to problems with standing waves. The new design of the MVNA-8-350 vector analyzer, developed by AB MILLIMETRE (Patent CNRS-AB MILLIMETRE), avoids this dual path configuration. Instead, it provides a direct way to perform vector measurements with a single path microwave channel. In the MVNA signal path, the measured millimeter wave signal, which reaches the detector head, is down converted in a Schottky diode harmonic mixer to much lower frequency. Then, the down converted signal is further processed in the heterodyne vector receiver which uses an original, very simple and effective internal reference channel. Receiver frequency tuning is achieved with an internal synthesizer. Although the frequency of the MVNA signal is usually not synthesized, an external 8-18 GHz source locking frequency counter (recommended) connected to MVNA allows one to synthesize each millimeter and submillimeter frequency with desired accuracy. Moreover, for a fast synthesized sweep one can use an external 2.67-6.5 GHz synthesizer attached to MVNA via FASA (FAst Synthesizer Association) extension.

I.2. MVNA-8-350 evolution.

Available from November 1994, a dual channel receiver introduced the possibility to detect two signals at the same time, and, from April 1995, a complete 4-S parameter circuit characterization without dismounting the DUT is available. From June 1996, the receiver response time was reduced by a factor of 20, allowing broad frequency sweeps in a few seconds. In November 1996, AB Millimetre introduced a new capability of MVNA which allows the system to work with a single pair of millimeter heads at two different frequencies at the same time. Such a set-up is particularly useful in time critical applications. For example, in experiments in high magnetic fields dual frequency measurements and more reliable (by comparison) acquisition saves precious experimental time and provides more data. In December 1996 the Company developed the capability of the system which allows to attach external microwave and submillimeter sources to the MVNA (therefore, also to detect their signal with vector capability) without need for an external stabilization. This is called FESA extension (Free External Source Association). In June 1997, the association with Gunn diode oscillators feeding multi-harmonic multipliers was extended to widely tunable Gunns. In such a configuration the high frequency domain (above 140 GHz) can be continuously covered with a minimum of extensions: a single extension ESA-1-FC (FC is for Full Coverage) to ca 600 GHz, the extensions ESA-1-FC and ESA-2-FC to ca 1000 GHz. Our extensions, ESA-1 (for the source) and ESA-2 (for the detector) use, as local oscillators, similar Gunns, tuned to very close frequencies. In July 2000, AB Millimetre has developed a new capability, which allows one to attach our ESA-2 extension into the detection system based on the frequency multiplication chain that the customer may already have. In that multiplication chain, the Gunn oscillator frequency can be different from the Gunn frequency of our ESA-2 extension. Due to the improved efficiency of existing, and yet to come, state-of-the-art multiplication chains, the upper frequency limit of our MVNA could be pushed up to ca. 2 THz. In September 2000, the Company has developed the possibility to detect simultaneously, by the same ESA-2 extension, signals from two different multiplication chains working at different submillimeter frequencies. Recently, in summer 2006, the ESA (External Source Association) extensions have been completely redesigned and improved into ASA (Automatic Source Association). This technical breakthrough was achieved by replacing, as W-band millimetre source, the 71-111 GHz mechanically tunable Gunn oscillators by an active multiplier chain composed from the sextupler cascaded with an equivalent medium power WR-10 waveguide amplifier. ASA extension is electronically tuned over the full frequency range. As a result, the experiments involving ASA extensions require neither tedious mechanical tuning of Gunns nor complicated adjustment of the PLL control. Moreover, at any central frequency chosen between 142 and 1000 GHz, the ASA extension is particulary useful for reasonably wide frequency sweeps, over 9 GHz, instead of at most a few GHz available with the former ESA extension.
The logical and operational control of the analyzer is done with a PC computer. The AB Millimetre software provides also many tools for data storage and analysis. These include Fourier Transform FT analysis, data fitting, averaging and smoothing. For example, the FT capability allows one to observe the time domain response of DUT after each frequency sweep, and it also provides very efficient tool for testing of microwave propagation in experimental benches. Complex Lorentzian fitting of resonances (circles in the complex response polar plane) brings, without ambiguity, relevant parameters for resonance cavities, and other resonances, even when the resonant signal is convoluted with a non resonant background. Split resonance (double Lorentzians) can be also resolved. Collected data can be further analyzed by fitting of built-in models, which include Fabry-Perot resonances, attenuated resonances, etc., or with externally supplied programs, including most popular data analysis software and the Labview package ("Labview" is a registered trade mark of National Instruments ).

I.3. MVNA-8-350 alone, or with extensions.

The Millimeter Vector Network Analyzer model MVNA-8-350 which is all solid state electronics, provides a continuous frequency coverage from 8 GHz to 330 GHz without any extension. Its internal tunable sources work in the centimeter domain, from 8.0 to 18.8 GHz. These sources can be used also directly, via their SMA coax connectors available at the front panel of the instrument. Millimeter-submillimeter waves are generated by frequency multiplication, and are detected by harmonic mixing. These multiplication-detection functions are performed in the millimeter heads connected to the analyzer main panel with flexible coax cables. Each millimeter head contains a Schottky barrier diode attached across a waveguide. Seven waveguide standards (WR-42, WR-22, WR-15, WR-10, WR-6, WR-5.1, and WR-3.4), with the corresponding six pairs of millimeter heads, deliver almost continuous frequency coverage from 16 GHz (our possible lower limit for WR-42) to 330 GHz. Without the WR-28 standard (Ka-Band), there is a small gap between 26.5 GHz (upper limit of WR-42 heads) and 29 GHz (our possible lower limit for WR-22 heads). Each of the millimeter bands below 330 GHz can be covered in a single computer-controlled frequency sweep, without need for an additional mechanical tuning. On the other hand, the ASA extensions do include mechanically tunable Schottky devices and configurable high pass filters which allow one to optimize the output power and tunability range of the system at any particular frequency between 142 and 1000 GHz. Then, the computer driven sweep span exceeds 9 GHz.

II. MVNA-8-350 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION.

II.1. MVNA-8-350 Basic Configuration and recommended extra equipment.

The basic MVNA-8-350 configuration consists of: All the above items are delivered, with all necessary cables, by AB MILLIMETRE under the name "MVNA-8-350", see see  Picture 1. A very much recommended extra equipment is the 8-20 GHz source locking counter (namely EIP 575). The MVNA can thus be automatically phase locked through, for example, the GPIB link. Such a configuration allows for synthesized frequency operation up to 1000 GHz, which is useful, for instance, when characterizing high-Q resonance (Q>30,000) or antennas with a large distance between the source and the detector.

II.2. MVNA-8-350 Millimeter Heads.

The AB MILLIMETRE Millimeter Heads, which are small and lightweight, are linked to the Analyzer through flexible coax cables, with a standard length of 1m each. The cable length can be extended up to 10m. The heads include, at the minimum, a Harmonic Generator HG (the source), and a Harmonic Mixer HM (the detector). In order to minimize the standing waves effects, each millimeter wave port must be equipped with a full band isolator (where available) or a fixed attenuator (above 220 GHz). The millimeter wave ports must be chosen in the millimeter bands of interest, namely K (18-26.5 GHz, waveguide WR-42), Ka (26.5-40 GHz, WR-28), Q (33-50 GHz, WR-22), U (40-60 GHz, WR-19), V (50-75 GHz, WR-15), W (75-110 GHz, WR-10), D (110-170 GHz, WR-6), G (140-220 GHz, WR-5.1), WR-3.4 (220-330 GHz). The millimeter ports in bands K, Ka, Q, U, V, W, D, G, and WR-3.4 are called FB (Flat Broadband), see  Picture 2 and   Picture 3. In all these bands no mechanical tuning is needed and one can perform full frequency range electronically-driven sweeps within given band. On the contrary, the millimeter ports HG-wr6 and HM-wr6 (see  Picture 4), in D band waveguide with the 100-350 GHz capability, must be mechanically tuned and carefully biased. After mechanical tuning and optimizing electric bias at chosen frequency, one can perform sweeps over the range of typically 20 GHz.

II.3. Different models of MVNA-8-350.

The MVNA Central Unit is made from two halves and each half exists in several versions. The different models of MVNA-8-350 are due to various combinations of the two halves (upper and lower).

II.3.1. MVNA-8-350-1.

Attaching MP-8-350-1 to VR-8-350-1, one obtains the simplest Analyzer, MVNA-8-350-1  (Picture 8), which performs a single measurement at a time. Let us consider a transmission measurement across a DUT. After calibration, in a first sweep, of direct transmission (HG directly connected to HM), the DUT is introduced between HG and HM. The second sweep gives the DUT parameter S21. Similarly S11 is measured with a directional coupler in the reflection geometry, after a calibration performed on a short. The more sophisticated reflection calibration is possible with a few additional components: fixed short, tunable short, and matched load.

II.3.2. MVNA-8-350-2.

The lower part of the Central Unit model MP-8-350-2 has a single connector for a HG cable, and two HM connectors (Picture 9). Two Harmonic Mixers can work simultaneously, for instance HM2 detecting transmission through the DUT, and HM1, at port 3 of a directional coupler, detecting reflection from the DUT (Picture 10). The Vector Receiver will naturally be the dual channel model VR-8-350-2. The assembly MP-8-350-2 + VR-8-350-2 is labeled as Analyzer model MVNA-8-350-2 (Picture 11).
For transmission-reflection measurements, calibrations can be made in two sweeps: firstly, HG contacting HM2 across the directional coupler, and then HM1 detecting total reflection from a short placed at the coupler output. Again, the more accurate reflection calibration is obtained in five, or seven sweeps with: a fixed short FS, a tunable short TS (in 3 positions), and a matched, or tunable load TL (in 1 or 3 positions) (Picture 12). After connecting the DUT between the coupler and HM2, S21 and S11 are measured simultaneously.

II.3.3. MVNA-8-350-4 and 4S parameters.

The microwave part MP-8-350-4 is designed for the 4S-Parameter measurements. It includes two connectors for the two detectors HM like in MP-8-350-2, and also two connectors for the two sources HG, which are powered alternatively  (Picture 13). Naturally, for such measurements the Vector Receiver must be the dual channel version, VR-8-350-2. The assembly of VR-8-350-2 and MP-8-350-4 is the 4-S Parameter Analyzer MVNA-8-350-4 (Picture 14). Thus the 4-S Parameters are obtained in two sweeps, which are automatically driven, without dismounting the DUT placed between two directional couplers.
The full calibration of empty system usually requires eight sweeps, using shorts, a through, a sliding short (3 positions) and a sliding matched load (3 positions). However, in some cases the calibration can also be done in a simpler way, in 3 sweeps only.

II.3.4. MVNA-8-350-1-2.

It is possible to attach a dual channel receiver VR-8-350-2, to a single-HM microwave part MP-8-350-1, creating in that way a very flexible measuring system, a "microwave panoramic receiver" with which one can extract two separate signals from the single detector HM (or extension ASA-2).
The frequencies of these signals may be either close to each other, or to lay far apart. The first case would correspond, for example, to the the carrier and the side band of the radio frequency AM-modulated microwaves, like the transmitted power and its derivative in the field modulated electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The two signals can also correspond to two rather different microwave frequencies. In particular, two detecting channels can be tuned to two different harmonics of the same HG or ASA-1 microwave source. It provides a possibility of simultaneous dual frequency measurements, like 52.5 and 70 GHz, 400 and 500 GHz, or a similar arrangement. The assembly of MP-8-350-1 (single detector Microwave Part) and VR-8-350-2 (dual channel Vector Receiver) is called MVNA-8-350-1-2, see Picture 15. That configuration is highly recommended for research applications, in particular, for spectroscopy and magneto-spectroscopy since the dual frequency technique allows one to save a lot of expensive measuring time.

II.4. Software and interfacing.

The installed sophisticated software offers many possibilities for signal storage, processing, visualization, etc. This includes the Fourier Transform analysis, and the line shape fitting of resonance. The system can also control external devices through the GPIB interface. It provides also and analog, and digital input/output channels, together with a direct access to the microwave receiver phase and amplitude signals. The installed software can drive one or two stepper motors, it can also supply a variable voltage corresponding for instance to the independent variable of the experiment, like the sweep of frequency, time, angle, temperature or magnetic field. Such a sweep can also be controlled by an external voltage supplied to the system. These possibilities are used for example, for antennas measurements, and for spectroscopy with magnetic fields. Last but not least the software of MVNA allows easy interfacing with standard experiment-control packages, including National Instruments Labview and compatible programs.

III. OPERATIONAL TECHNIQUES AND THE DYNAMIC RANGE.

III.1. The 8-330 GHz frequency range.

The "Low Frequency Range", where the analyzer signal frequency is swept in a continuous way, without extensions, is extending from 8 GHz to 330 GHz. The ratio of the total power of the signal radiated by the source to the smallest amount of power which can be detected (at the noise level, at the measurement rate of 20 points/sec), expressed in logarithmic units, is called the Dynamic Range (DR). That number also shows the maximum attenuation introduced by the DUT which can be measured with the MVNA.
A typical DR, obtained with the Flat Broadband (FB) millimeter heads, is above 100 dB up to 110 GHz, see Picture 16, traces "a" and "b". In the D-band it is approximately 90 dB (trace "c" in the Picture 16) with FB heads HG-D-FB/HM-D-FB. In the G-band (WR-5.1, 142-220 GHz) the DR is above 90 dB (trace "d"), and in the WR-3.4 band (220-330 GHz) it is approximately 80 dB (trace "e").
With a fundamental W-band mixer FM-W-FB and with two sources HG-W-FB (one of them working as the local oscillator of FM-W-FB), the DR is approximately 140 dB in the W-band, as shown in the Picture 16, trace "f".

III.1.1. Enhanced DR: External Source Association (ESA-0), or Free External Source Association (FESA).

At a given frequency it is possible to enhance the DR using an external source, like a BWO, or a Gunn oscillator instead of a limited power Harmonic Generator HG. This extension is called ESA-0 (External Source Association,"zero" means that the Gunn is not followed by any frequency multiplier), see  Picture 17, if the frequency of the external source is controlled by the MVNA frequency. It is called FESA (Free External Source Association) if it is the MVNA frequency which is controlled by an external source frequency. This last possibility is particulary useful if high-voltage driven BWO-s sources are coupled to MVNA .
For instance, detection of the signal provided by the W-band Gunn oscillator with the corresponding harmonic mixer HM-W-FB gives in that band the DR between 120 and 140 dB (see trace "g" in the Picture 16). That dynamic range can be further enhanced, up to 150 dB, (see trace "h" in the Picture 16) with a detection system built from the Fundamental Mixer FM-W-FB and the source HG-W-FB which plays the role of the local oscillator for the Fundamental Mixer.

III.2. A lightweight solution for the range 100-350 GHz.

The mechanically tuned millimeter heads HG-wr6/HM-wr6 are used in their fundamental mode band 110-170 GHz, extended down to 100 GHz. They also can be used above 170 GHz in the oversized mode of their WR-6 waveguide, with attached waveguide transitions and high-pass filters. That configuration allows experiments with the DR larger than 40 dB at frequencies in the 170-350 GHz interval. The DR decreases from 90 dB at 110 GHz to approximately 80 dB at 170 GHz, 76 dB at 200 GHz, 57 dB at 300 GHz and 45 dB at 350 GHz, as shown in trace "i" in the  Picture 16. The frequency of these heads can be electronically swept over the range of approximately 20 GHz.

III.2.1. Continuous, 142-500 GHz, frequency coverage: ASA-1-FC Extension.

In the ASA-1-FC (Full Coverage) extension  (Picture 18), the electronically tunable amplified source (covering the range 71-111 GHz) feeds the wide-band tuned multi-harmonic multiplier TMU. Such a set-up provides a continuous frequency coverage. The range 142-222 GHz is obtained when the multiplier TMU works as a doubler, 213-333 GHz with TMU as a tripler, 284-444 GHz with TMU as a quadrupler, etc. Notice the frequency overlaping of consecutive harmonic bands. The detection can be done either with a simple HM-D-FB detector (trace "j",  Picture 16) or with a tunable detector HM-wr6 (trace "k" at the same Picture 16).
As an example, let us consider ASA-1 extension with the local oscillator source tuned to 100 GHz. It provides a comb of frequencies which are harmonics of 100 GHz, at 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 GHz. A typical microwave power on the harmonics 2 to 6, is (in miliwatts): 1.3, 0.4, 0.13, 0.04, 0.001. The DR, obtained with the system of MVNA-8-350 and ESA-1 extension, as detected by HM-wr6 is about 102 dB at 200 GHz, 96 dB at 300 GHz, 75 dB at 400 GHz, 65 dB at 500 GHz, 45 dB at 600 GHz, see trace "k" in the Picture 16.

III.2.2. Increasing the dynamic range and opening of the continuous frequency coverage 250-1000 GHz: ASA-2-FC extension.

Above 250 GHz it is possible to increase the DR obtained with the set-up MVNA-8-350 + ASA-1 (see III.2) by 30 to 40 dB adding the extra extension ASA-2-FC (Full Coverage), see trace "l" at Picture 16. This extension is rather similar to ASA-1-FC, and uses the same type of local oscillator ( Picture 19).
With ASA-2-FC detection, the M>6 harmonics become visible with a minimum DR: 75 dB at 700 GHz, 60 dB at 800 GHz, 45 dB at 900 GHz, and 30 dB at 1000 GHz (shown as trace "l" in the Picture 16). ASA-2-FC extension provides both, the large DR, and broad frequency expansion. The extension ASA-2-FC works together with ASA-1-FC extension for a continuous frequency coverage over the range 250-1000 GHz  (Picture 20).

III.2.3. Microwave power control over a range of at least 50 dB.

The ASA-1-A-FC option of the ASA-1-FC extension is equipped with a 0-60 dB rotary-vane calibrated attenuator K. At the fundamental frequency (within the W band) its calibration is reliable in the 0-50 dB attenuation range. The power can be also controlled after frequency multiplication with the attenuator K inserted between the waveguide amplifier and the Multiplier. However, due to the nonlinear characteristic of the multiplier, the output power will decrease much faster than that shown by the attenuator scale, and the effective range of the adjustment will increase (to more than 130 dB at M=3, at the maximum attenuation position). The MVNA analyzer itself provides a very precise calibration of the relative output power versus attenuator K position.

IV. ACCESSORY COMPONENTS.

IV.1. Isolators.

At operations below 170 GHz a full waveguide band Faraday isolator must be attached to each millimeter head in order to reduce the standing waves. It is difficult to find standard isolators available above 220 GHz (WR-5.1). If one encounters problems with standing waves working at higher frequencies, the attenuators inserted into the microwave or optical path should help to diminish their effect. That will, however, also reduce the dynamic range of the detector. Therefore, a trade off must be analyzed and tested for each particular application. One should also notice that isolators are sensitive to stray magnetic fields and must not be placed in a field exceeding a few Gauss. (For example, big superconducting magnets may generate stray field of that strength in the radius of a few meters.).

IV.2. Filters.

The use of the millimeter heads HG-wr6/HM-wr6 above 170 GHz requires high-pass filters which are supplied by AB MILLIMETRE (Picture 21). Similar high-pass filters are incorporated into ASA extensions, see:  Picture 22.

IV.3. Attenuators.

Fixed value attenuators (40 dB in the K-Ka bands, 30 dB in the Q-V bands, 20 dB in the W band, 10 dB in the D band, etc.) are very useful for direct signal calibration, and also to measure low loss devices, since they damp the standing waves. An appropriate attenuator is supplied for free with each HG head, as shown in the  Picture 2, between the isolators.

IV.4. Directional couplers.

Directional couplers are necessary for reflection measurements, and they are also very useful for the characterization of waveguide structures (sample holders, diplexers, light pipes, etc.). There are separate couplers for each frequency range, corresponding to waveguide standard sizes, up to 400 GHz (WR-2.8). See  Picture 23.

IV.5. Feed Horns, Conical transitions.

If one chooses the free space, or quasi optical mode of propagation, one must couple the radiation from the millimeter heads outputs, which are waveguides, to the free space with horn antennas creating Gaussian beams, typically with about 10 half angle aperture (RF field dropping by 1/e), and side lobes below -20 dBc. AB Millimetre supply, upon request, scalar (corrugated) or Potter horns for frequencies up to 1000 GHz  Picture 24,  Picture 25,  Picture 26.
In case one chooses the oversized guide, or light pipe propagation, one must use low loss, low standing wave ratio, pyramidal-conical transitions between waveguides and the light pipe, Picture 27. The cone half angle is 3 or below, and the length of each transition is around 90 mm.

IV.6. Extension cables.

Standard microwave (8 - 18 GHz) SMA connecting cables supplied with the Analyzer are 1m long. Some low temperature experiments and antenna characterization may require longer cables. For these purposes we offer extension cables up to 10 m long. Cables up to 25 m can also be used with 8-18 GHz amplifiers. One should notice that, in order to achieve a good phase stability, it is recommended that the sum of the effective length of the cable connecting the Analyzer to the source HG plus the length of the microwave path from the source to the detector should be equal to the length of the cable connecting the detector HM to the Analyzer. The corresponding extra length of coax cable connecting on the HM side should be calculated taking into account that the free space propagation length is 1.2 m per 1 m of the cable.

V. REFERENCES.

Reprints are available upon request from AB MILLIMETRE.
  1. "Antenna vector characterization in the mm- and submm-wave regions", P. Goy, Microwave Journal, June 1994, p.98.
  2. "Free Space Vector Transmission-Reflection from 18 GHz to 760 GHz", P. Goy, M. Gross, 24th European Microwave Conference, 5-8 September 1994, Cannes, France.
  3. "Quasi-optics vector transmission-reflection from 18 to 760 GHz", P. Goy, M. Gross, Workshop on low-noise quasi-optics, September 12-13 1994, Bonn, Germany.
  4. "Vector transceiver for millimeter wave antennas", P. Goy, M. Gross, invited talk, 20th ESTEC-ESA Antenna Workshop on Millimeter Wave Antenna Technology and Antenna Measurements, June 18-20, 1997, Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
  5. "Vector measurements from 8 GHz to the THz range, obtained in a real life experiment", P. Goy, M. Gross, in "New Directions in Terahertz Technology", NATO ASI Series E: Applied Sciences - Vol. 334 ed. J. M. Chamberlain, R.E. Miles, pp.323-340, ISBN 0-7923-4537-1, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London 1997.
  6. "A simple millimeter/submillimeter-wave blackbody load suitable for spaceborn applications", Peter H. Siegel, Robert H. Tuffias, Philippe Goy, 9th International Conference on Space THz Technology, March 17-19, 1998, Pasadena, CA, USA.
  7. "Vector measurements at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths: feasibility and applications", P. Goy, S. Caroopen, M. Gross, invited plenary talk, 2nd ESA Workshop on Millimeter Wave Technology and applications, May 27-29 1998, Espoo, Finland.
  8. "Millimeter and submillimeter wave vector measurements with a network analyzer up to 1000 GHz. Basic principles and applications." P. Goy, M. Gross, S. Caroopen, 4th Int. Conf. on Millimeter and Submillimeter Waves and Applications, July 20-23 1998, San Diego, CA, USA.
  9. "Quasi-optics vector measurements of dielectrics from 8 GHz to the THz", P. Goy, S. Caroopen, M. Gross, J. Mallat, J. Tuovinen, F. Mattiocco, 6th Conf. on THz Electronics, September 3-4 1998, Leeds, UK.
  10. "Dual-frequency vector detection in the 8-800 GHz interval. Application to spectroscopy at high magnetic field.", P. Goy, S. Caroopen, M. Gross, K. Katsumata, H. Yamaguchi, M. Hagiwara, H. Yamazaki, 23th Int. Conf. on Infrared and Millimeter Waves, September 7-11, 1998, Colchester, UK.
  11. "Magnetooptical millimeter wave spectroscopy", C. Dahl, P. Goy, J.P. Kotthaus, in "Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids", ed. G. Gruener, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg , 1998, ISBN 3-540-62860-6, pp. 221-282.
  12. "Millimeter-submillimeter measurements in free space, and in resonant structures. Application to dielectrics characterization." P. Goy, M. Gross, S. Caroopen, J. Mallat, J. Tuovinen, A. Maestrini, G. Annino, M. Fittipaldi, M. Martinelli, Material Research Society Spring Meeting, April 24-28 2000, Symposium AA "Millimeter-submillimeter wave technology, materials, devices, and diagnostics", invited talk, San Francisco, USA.
  13. "Vector measurements up to the THz and beyond, at several frequencies at the same time", P. Goy, S. Caroopen, M. Gross, 8th Int. Conf. on THz Electronics, September 28-29 2000, Darmstadt, Germany.
  14. "Instrumentation for millimeter-wave magnetoelectrodynamic investigations of low-dimensional conductors and superconductors", M. Mola, S. Hill, P. Goy, M. Gross, Rev. Sci. Inst. 71, 186-200, (2000).
  15. "A Vector Analyzer for observing millimeter-submillimeter resonances", P. Goy, S. Caroopen, A. Ardavan, R. Edwards, E. Rzepniewski, J. Singleton, 30th European Microwave Conference, October 2-6 2000, CNIT, Paris-La Defense, France.
  16. "Dielectric characterization in the millimeter and submillimeter range by vector measurements in quasi-optical structures", P. Goy, S. Caroopen, M. Gross, B.Thomas, A. Maestrini, 17eme Colloque International Optique Herzienne et Dielectriques, OHD 2003, Sept. 3-5, Calais, France.
  17. "Continuous wave vector measurements from 8 GHz to the THz and beyond", P. Goy, M. Gross, S. Caroopen, IRMMW 2003, 28 International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Otsu Shiga, Sept. 29 - Oct. 2, 2003, Japan.
  18. "S11 characterization of a defective-, then repaired-, scalar horn for W-band", P. Goy, internal report, Jan. 16, 2005.
  19. "Vector characterization of millimeter-submillimeter antennas with a single setup in the 8-1000 GHz interval", P. Goy, S. Caroopen, M. Gross, ICAT 2005, International Conference on Antenna Technologies, Feb. 23-24, 2005, Ahmedabad, India.
  20. "Large area W-band quasi-optical Faraday rotators for imaging applications", R.I. Hunter, D.A. Robertson, P. Goy, G.M. Smith, IRMMW2005/THz2005, The Joint 30th International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves & 13th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics, Sept. 19-23, 2005, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA.
  21. "Multiple frequency submillimeter-wave heterodyne imaging using an AB Millimetre MVNA", P.H. Siegel, R.J. Dengler, T. Tsai, P. Goy, H. Javadi, IRMMW 2005/THz 2005, The Joint 30th International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves & 13th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics, Sept. 19-23, 2005, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA.
  22. "Comparison between two scalar horns, designed for 183 GHz, by the reflection method in D-band (110-170 GHz)", P. Goy, internal report AB Millimetre, Jan. 22, 2007.
  23. "Vector measurements of cavity and magnetic resonances", P. Goy, internal report AB Millimetre, Jan. 22, 2007.

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